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The effects of Brexit

Two years ago, the majority in the UK voted for Brexit. The negotiations between the UK and the rest of Europe are still in full swing. These negotiations are about the terms on which the UK will leave Europe. In the time that they have been negotiating, a lot has happened in the economy of both the UK and the rest of Europe. In this article I will line up these consequences that have already taken their effect and will also discuss the consequences that are yet to happen.

Behavioural Economics Part II (Christmas Edition)

“It’s beginning to look a lot like…money spent on gift buying, Christmas deadweight loss and chaos in the market.”

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It’s that time of the year again. The end of the year is rapidly approaching and everyone is looking forward to seeing their presents under the Christmas tree on the morning of the 25th.

However, since Christmas is also about being selfless, economists have analysed the impacts of gift giving around the winter holiday period, as well as why people tend to behave less rationally from an economic point of view.

As it has already been established in Part I, people tend to display unexpected, irrational behaviour despite the microeconomic assumption that people are rational.

According to Joel Waldfogel, gift-giving has a healthy effect from a macro perspective as it positively affects spending. From a microeconomic perspective, gift-giving may actually lead to deadweight loss. The most evident reason is why it may lead to deadweight loss is the possible mismatch of preferences. The person offering the gift may not be familiar with the preferences the other person has. Furthermore, it has also been proven that the recipient undervalues the actual value of the present as he or she is not perfectly informed, ultimately destroying a third of the value of the gift. Since holiday expenditures average around 40 billion dollars/year, the deadweight loss of Christmas gift-giving is a tenth as large as the deadweight loss of income taxation (Waldfogel, 2014).

So what would be the most effective present that would lead to a reduced deadweight loss?

Money. And gift cards. Such a present will allow the recipient to maximize their level of satisfaction by making their own choices with the received money – or so that is objectively the ‘ideal’ economic situation.

However, people don’t always think in terms of efficiency or reduced loss when purchasing a present. Since emotion and social factors are a driving force in decision making, some may find it impersonal and self-interested to give banknotes to friends, family members or a significant other. Therefore, retailers observe the unpredicted behaviour of consumers and take advantage of their irrational decisions during the festive season. One of the ways in which retailers take advantage of people’s irrational behaviour is entailed by the endowment effect and loss aversion. People tend to evaluate the price they are willing to for a product, based on their relationship with the product. Simply owning the product seems to make it more valuable to us. “Losing” the product by not purchasing it sometimes has a stronger influence on our decision making than purchasing or “gaining” the object.

Another way in which people’s illogical behaviour can be an advantage for retailers is the illusion effect. When purchasing presents, people tend to think of the impact that the present has at that moment, also known as the “wow” effect – rather than evaluation how practical the present will be in the long-run. Knowing this, retailers manipulate consumers’ decisions by placing certain products at more accessible shelves or decorating stores in yellow, giving free samples; because subconsciously, yellow gives people the tendency to feel happier.

In short, markets know how to jog with people’s consuming behaviour during the cold season. So choose presents wisely this Christmas. :)

 

Bibliography:

Albertson, Kevin, and Manchester Metropolitan University. “The Economics of Christmas.”

World Economic Forum, 2013, www.weforum.org/agenda/2014/12/the-economics-of-christmas/.

Waldfogel, Joel. “The Deadweight Loss of Christmas .” Www.amherst.edu, 2001,

www.amherst.edu/media/view/104699/original/christmas.pdf.

Weissmann, Jordan. “The Behavioral Economist’s Guide to Buying Presents.” The Atlantic,

Atlantic Media Company, 16 Dec. 2011,

www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2011/12/the-behavioral-economists-guide-to-buying-presents/249993/.

 

Customer expectations

Customer expectations [Shortread]

Marketing – In an ever increasing globalizing world marketing, both online as well as offline, is vital for the performance of the modern firm. An immense growth of the service industry, including increased competition  between service organizations, has led to an increased focus on customer expectations and perceptions.  In this article mainly the concept of customer expectations will be addressed. Furthermore, customer expectations will be put into perspective regarding customer perceptions and satisfaction, making a clear distinction between the two.

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Health care insurance, an evergrowing expense

Last Monday was the deadline day for health insurers to announce their insurance rates for the upcoming year. On average, the increase in insurance rate is almost 6%. This is for the basic insurances, if you want to have more freedom of healthcare choice, the rates go up a little more than the 6%. In the annual budget the cabinet predicted how much the premiums for health insurance would increase, which would result in an increase of 10.33 euros per month. This would be a total of almost 124 euros a year.  Therefore, the actual increase is lower than the predicted increase. In this article, I will discuss the main factors that cause the health insurance premium to rise.

…A look at Rationalism & Behavioural economics

(Part I)

Rationalism is the concept of innate ideas, reason, and deduction. Rationalism is characterized by the philosophical term “a priori”, which uses logic and reason to come to a conclusion before experience. One common assumption that economists make when making models is that people are predictable and rational. However, in the real world, people can be impulsive and short-sighted when making decisions. The study field that analyses humans’ rationalism is called behavioral economics. More generally, the branch focuses on the philosophical, social and emotional factors when making decisions as discussed by Adam Smith in “The theory of moral sentiments” in 1759. Although rationalism (or the absence of it) makes it harder to predict human behavior for economists, behavioral economics has gained popularity over the past few decades and it has been applied in fields such as public policy, political science, marketing, and finance.

Everything you need to know about Monetary Policy Decisions

Last Thursday, the ECB published yet another monetary policy decision. Given that the ECB and its monetary policy are one of the cornerstones of our economy, it’s surprising how little attention there is – both in the media as in class -for the monetary policy decision and the press conference in which the policy is announced – in fact, the only mentioning of the monetary policy of the ECB was in June this year, when the ECB announce to quit – in a considerable amount of time – the quantitative easing.

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Abolition dividend tax, reconsidered

The abolition of the dividend tax in the Netherlands has been the topic of discussion in the house of representatives for the last couple of months. A big player in the decision was Unilever, who would possibly move their headquarters to the Netherlands if the dividend tax was abolished. This was one of the main reasons to abolish the tax. When Unilever announced that they weren’t so sure about moving their headquarters to the Netherlands anymore, the house of representatives took another look at the abolition  of the tax.  This time, they came to the conclusion that the abolition did not yield enough economic benefits that outweighed the possible costs of the abolition.